Mental disorders affect millions of people around the world. A 2017 study by the Indian Council of Medical Research found that mental disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders affected 45.7 million and 44.9 million people in India, respectively. This means that one in seven Indians has mental health problems. Despite the fact that it is so common, people with mental health problems choose not to be open about their illness and do not pay enough attention to it. Doing so could only make your condition worse. The first step towards treating them is recognizing these psychological disorders.
On World Mental Health Day, Health Shots spoke to Dr Kedar Tilwe, Consultant Psychiatrist, Fortis Hospital Mulund and Hiranandani Hospital, Vashi, Mumbai, to know more about some of the most common mental disorders and their symptoms.
Common mental disorders
Here are 7 common mental disorders to be aware of:
One of the most common mental disorders, depression is characterized by profound sadness, decreased interest in previously enjoyable activities, sleep disturbances, ideas of helplessness, hopelessness and worthlessness, along with thoughts or attempts at self-harm. It can disrupt daily functioning and affect sleep, appetite and energy levels. Although the intensity can range from mild to moderate or severe, the condition is typically treated with a combination of supervised pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), medication, and lifestyle changes.
2. Anxiety disorder
“Anxiety disorders can range from severe disproportionate anxiety, which can be caused in response to a situation (specific phobia), the anticipation of panic attacks (panic attack disorder, agoraphobia) or multiple minor, non-specific worries (generalized anxiety disorders). disorder),” says Dr. Tilwe. In a person with any form of anxiety disorder, it is essential to rule out underlying medical conditions such as hypertension, thyroid disease or diabetes, as comorbidities can occur. Therapy, medication, and relaxation techniques can also help manage anxiety.
3. Stress disorder
Stress disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), result from exposure to traumatic events. Flashbacks, nightmares, and severe anxiety are all possible symptoms. These disorders often develop as a result of trauma, such as combat experiences, accidents, or abuse. A combination of controlled pharmacotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and appropriate lifestyle changes will help manage these disorders.
Also read: Mental disorders in children: know warning signs to look out for
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4. Drug abuse
“Although tobacco and alcohol abuse are the most common substance use disorders, dependence on cannabis, opioids, inhalants, benzodiazepines and hallucinogens is also called substance abuse. These are psychotropic drugs that can cause high levels of addiction and have dangerous physical and psychological consequences,” adds Dr. Tilwe. This is why proper, supervised addiction treatment, depending on the drug, motivational interviewing, and group therapy will help addicts kick the habit.
5. Eating disorders
Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder involve an unhealthy relationship with food and body image. People suffering from an eating disorder may restrict their food intake, binge eat or exercise excessively. Dr. Tilwe claims: “These conditions are often related to societal pressures and psychological factors. Treatment includes therapy, nutritional advice and medical supervision.”
6. Disorders that arise in childhood
These disorders include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), learning disabilities, autism spectrum disorder, and intellectual disability, which can affect a child’s emotional, behavioral, and social development. All these conditions require medical intervention and timely diagnosis, as early diagnosis and treatment can significantly affect the prognosis.
Also read: 7 self-care tips to improve your mental health
7. Bipolar disorder
Bipolar disorder, formerly known as manic-depressive illness, is characterized by extreme mood swings between mania and depression. Individuals experiencing manic episodes may feel elated, have more energy, and engage in risky activities. Depressive episodes are characterized by emotions of helplessness and exhaustion. Bipolar disorder can be caused by genetics, brain chemistry, and life events. Medication and therapy are common treatments to stabilize mood.
In today’s world, apart from these mental disorders, it is also essential to be aware of cell phone addictions, gaming, selfies and internet addictions/abuse. because they can also negatively impact your mental health!